Ӽᵿٮ ԫ N 15. ꯡ, 1993 .

Ŵ

        ѽ 1991 ӫ Ŵԡ ҽ ӿߡ Կѽ 쿬 Һѵ. ԫ , Ѯ޿ Ἣ Ἣ߬, ٽ 1920- , ѡ, Ѽ Ὣ ạ ԫ, ߽񡿼 "ի" ٽ  񿫻ӫ޽ѡԿ, ԫӫ ӫ Ѽ ٮ . ɫ߬ޡ 񫽫ԫ ԫѡ ٽ ӫ, ߫ ٽ ᡫѡ ޻, ԫټ ӫի񿽿 ҡᵿ. ѽ ѡ ӫ ߿ ߬ế . ū߽ ѽ ( ) Դ ԫἿ, ᡿޿ Ӭ ӫ, ᬫѵ ԫ Ӽ, Կ߬ ᡿. ٽ ӿԫ ѡ ߡ ޻ ӫ , ߼Ӵ ߽ ӫ󿺡 ѡ , ѼԿӫ ѽ ߯ ߿Ѽ ԫѡ . Կ ӫѬ . . ӫ, һѡѼ ӫ. 񿼿 ӫ, . . Žի . . ѡ߫ ٽ ӫѡ. ԫٮ 񡿬 ӫ 20 1993 ѡ 쿬-Һѵ ߽Ҫ Ѽ ү . ū ߽ѡ ӿ ߬߬ Ѵ ߿ ǽѬ߿ II ӫ ẫټ ߽ ԫ-ƿի߬ ߽߬ Կ. ᡿ߴ ѡ ҽ Ӭ ѡ, ߽Ҫ Կ߬ ի, Ҭ ѡ ѻѽ ҽ Ӭ . ԫ Ӽᵿ Ԭ ӿ Ԭү ԫӿ ӫ ӿѡ ߻ Կԫ ..ѻެ ߻᡿ Ӵ .. ᡿ ӫ .

"ӿ
ӿߡ
ߴ"
        ( ի)

        󴡡 Ӭ ӫ Ŵԡ " ǽѬ ӿ Ѭ Ἣ߬" һߴ 1642 ſߵټ Ѽѡ , ߼ѡ Ѫ:"...ӿٽ Ӭ ӫ ߬ Ѭ". ѡ Ӭ ٽ ӫѡ 1678 ѽἿ 󡿬 Ѵ ޡ, ޽ ᡿ "Ӭ ӫ ޡ". ūӫ 󽴽 ԿߴԡἿ ӫ ټ ǡѼ ߿ټ ߴԡἿ Ѽ Ӵټ ѽἿ, ޿ ߽Ҫ ѽ ӿ ӿ, . ū ѽ ӿ ӿ ԡ, ԫ 1706 " Կ 󫻫ӫѡٮ ӿѽ ὿߬ Ѯ ӿ. 1788 Ӭ Ҫ ӿѽ. үѼ ӿѽ ԫ ߴ ӿѽ ӫӫ 꽿. 19 Ѭ ӿ Ӭ ԫ ٽ ѽ, ӿԫ 󴡡 ѡ, ᬫ, , Ӵ ӫӡ.

        ᡫѡ ߫Ѽѡ Ӭ-ӿԫ ӫѬ ԡ߿ߴ ӫѽ ӿ 1806-1826 , Ӭ Կԫ ߬߬ һ ԫѡ ԡ ᡿ Ѽѡ 﫡 ѻެ ӫ Ӭ, Ѻ Ҽ ӿѽἿ ٽ ӫѡ ڿߴ ߬ . . ӿټ, . . ᬫټ . . 諺߬. ԫ Ѽ ٽ ӫѡ ӿԫ . 1830- , ߬ ٽ ѡѡ Ӭ Ԭ, ӫ , Ŵԡ ҽ ޡ߬ ҽ ٽ ߫Ҫѡ ᪡ ѡ 󴡡 ӫѡ ѡѼ ӫԫ һ, ѬѮߴ Ѭߡ ӫԫ ӫ . ūӫ ѽ ѡ ү ӫѽү ᡫ, Ѽ ߿ Ἣ .

        ٽ 20- , ߻ߴ Ҫ ạ Ѫѡ, ӿԫ - . ԫ Ѽ ѡ Կ ߴ Ѫ ӿѪ Ѽ ӿԫӿ. ᪡ ӿԫ Ԭ ӿѽ ԫ ѡ ߬ߡ ެ. ᪡ իߴ Ѭ ᡵѽӿ ߽ ԫ-ƿի߬ ߽߬ Կ, ᬪ ế "߽ ߽".

        Ѭߡ ԫ ѡ߬ իӫޫ ѡ ԫ . ߫ѡ, ӫѡ Ŵԡ ޡ߬ ޿ Ѯ ޽, ӿ٬ Ѽ ѽѻ ѽѡ ҡ . , ߼Ӵ ޡ իԿ, -ѪѼ ԫ ӫ ӫἿ. Ӵ ټ ѽ, ᬿ һ ѻެ Ѽѡ 﫡 ١ 伿ӿ Ѽѡ, ӫ Ŵԡ ߽ߴ 󫿼 , Ἷ, , Ἷ. , ѽ ѽ ߬ Ѯ, Ѻ ᡿ Ѽ , ᡡ ӫ. ӿ߫ ӿ߬, ߼ ѼԿӫ ԫ 񡿬. ߴ ԼԿ ү , ӿү ᡵ, ԫ ӫ ߬ , ԫ ӿ὿ Һ Ҽ᡿ӡ ѿԡ ԫ ԫ, ԫ ӫѡ . Կ ѽ ὿ ӡү Ӭ, ԫ ٽ ѽ .

ӿѡ 1. 伿ӿ Ѽѡ ѻެ.

        ūԫѡٮ ԡٮ Ѽѡٮ ߬߬ һѵ 1- . . ѻެ, Ӭٮ ӫ ӫ Ӭ ޡ I860 .

        1862 . ԡټ ᡿ . . ⫽ެټ ߫ 700 .

        ѬѼ 1864 . ѽ (ѻެټ) ѡ ի ᡿, ԫү һѡ ߫ѡ ỿ1500 Ѯ ӫ.

        26 ԴӴ 1862 . ᡿ Ӭ ѡ ѡ . ᡿߽ 3- ѻѡ.

        ūԫѡٮ ԡٮ ᡿ . . ѻެ, 36 , ߽ٮ, ѡ . ᡿߽, ү " " ѡ ǡ߬ ѡ ӫү Ѯ 󫮡 1853-1856 .

        ӿӫ ߬߬ һ. ūԫѡٮ ԡٮ ᡿ 1833 . 7 Ӵ. ߬ ӿ ӫ߬, Ŵԡ ߬ Դ. Ǽ ӫ߬ ߬ Դ, 伿ӫ߬ Ѻ ҼӴү Ԭᵬү ӿ.

        ޿ӡ ӫ Ҽ᪡ Ӵ ߫ իӫ Ҽѡ ѡ, ѡ ߬ ѡ ӫ ӫԫӡ ѡ ߫ Ὣ ԫ 1855 17 .

        ѡ ѡ ѫѡ իڿߴ ߬ ѡὫ, - -ӫ Ѯ ѫѡ߬ Կӿ ۴ѡ ߫ ӡ 1856 . ѡ ѡ 쿬, Ѯ ١Ѯ - Ѽѡ 9 , 쿬 , ԫ իߴ ӿ Ѽ.

       

諡߿ԫӿ.

        ū ѽ ѡ Ӭ ӫ 髺ѡ߬ ӿ ҼӴ ӿ 伿ӫ߬ Ѻ, ᬪ ӿ ӫ ޡ Ӭ ԡ ᡿ 伿ӿ ѻެ ߽ ӿ Ӭ...

        佴 ߬߬ ӫ ޡ Ӭ 󫿼 Ἷ ѽ ߽ү:

        ѡ ӿ Ӭ Ҭӿ ߿ ߽ Խޡ , Դټ ԫ ᮼ ӫᡡټ իټ , ߬ Ἣ, Ѭԫ ޿ߴ, Խ ٽ ټ Ἷ, ߻ӫѡ Ӭ ӿ߫񿡿 Ѯ , ԫӫ ӫ Խү Կѽү ӿ, ѽѼү Ӭ ߿ ѽѺ Ԭ, ӿ ү ԡ ӫ ᬿӫᡡ . ӿ ի Ӭ, Ҫٮ ի ӫ ӫ὿ , ӫѡ Ѽ߬ Ѭ, ӫ Ӭټ ի , ԫ ӫѡ ӿ ѡ ޡἿ ӿ , ߡҪ ߻ ҬӬ, Ἷ ѻү , ӫ ٬߿ ѽѡ ߽ ߬, Ӭ ٽ ӿټ ӫ, Ҫ Ӭ ӿ Ҭ߿ 󫻿ߡټ ѡ ѡ ߫Կ , ԫӫ ѻ, Ѫ , ạԡټ ѬἿ, ߯ Ӭ ӿѽ ӫѡ ѡ, ߡ ү ԫ , ߿ ᡫ ߫ѡ ỿ 37500 Ѯ ӫ. ӫ ԫ, , ѻެ, ӫ Ӭ󡫮 Ѽ ӿ Ѯ Ӭ ᪡ٮ Ѽ, ԫ ի ٽ Ѽ Ӫ᡿ Ӭ , ٽ ٮ ѽѺ ԫ Ѽ ӫ Ѽ ѡ ѽ..

        1865 . Ӭٮ ӫ Ӭ ӫ ޡ ԫѡٮ ԡٮ ᡿ . . ѻެ ѡ ѡ ǡ III ѻѡ " ߽ ի󡫼 ".

ӿѡ 2. ԫ . . --Ӵ-ҫ XX Ѭ.
        ٽ Ѽ . ߡ, ӡ Ѽ, ҽ ߫ Ѯ Ѯ ѻѬ , ѡ߬ Ѫ ߬-Ѭ, ߫ѡ ѫᡡ ߽ ѡ ޫ ߫ ԫӫ Ἣ߬. ٽ ԫ -ᬿ Ѭ, ԫ Ѽ ߽ߴ ѡ ߡ, Խ; ѽ , ѡ , ỽ. 촡 ᡫ Ӵ. ġ ѡ, ӿߴ Ѯ, ٽ : ߿ ѡ, ٽ ի; ߬ Ѭҡ ԫ, ԫ-ԫ ѻԡ, 󴺡 ӫӼ һ Ѻ ߫᡿. 촡 ߿ ѻ ӫ߿ ߴ ԡԿ ѡ 񫼫. 䫼 ԫ ٽ ѻ ѡ, ߫ѡ , Ѽ ԫ ӫ޽. ԫ ߽ , ٮ ѡ ߿ , ᬫ ߿ ѡ, ٽ ٮ , ߽ Ҫ Ὣ. ԫ ߽ , ӫ , ԫ Ѫү ߬-Ѭ. 䫽 Һ, Ԭ 񫡫߿ߴ ԫ Ҭ ѽѮ ߫ - ԫ ٽ ӿ ԫ ᡿... 񿡡Կ ٽ 񡫮 Ἣ߬, ٽ ߬ѡ, ӫ, Ѽ, Ӭ ߽Ҫ, ӿ Ѯ . ߽ , ԫٮ, , ٽ Ѭ. ġ ѡ Ҽߴ; ԫ ԫ-ԫ ừ . Ѽ ٽ , ҽߴ ԫӫ ҽ . ԫ ٽ ӫ ޡ, Ŵԡ. (Կߴ Կ . " ߬߬").