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    ӫ᡿
      ὿߬ ., .޿ ( ӫ) 
        1944 
      ԫ ѽ ի ( ߬ѡѼ ӿ 쿬
      - ᡬ-), ԫ ԫ ѡ, .ѽ իѽ
      ѿԡټ.
      .ѽ ٽ ѽ ߬ԫ, ԡ, ߴ, ѡ ӫ ,
      ѽ. ߫ , ߻Ҵ ޿ Ѭү
      ӯ. Ӭ, ӿٽ޿ߴ Ѽ, - ٽ — ӿ.
      ѽ ū : " ѻ ի ". ѽ ū
      . .ѽ ӿ߬ ӿ : ,
      ѽ , ߬ , ѡѼ. ߿ ,
      ߽Ҫ ᡿ Ѽ.
      ӿ 쿬 ٽ ӿիᡬ .쿬 Һѵ. 1951.
      ԫѽѼ ӫԫѮ 󫽫 , ӡ޿ߴ ߬
      ݼᵿ ɫ߿. ӿ 쿬 󿽫 Ѯ ߽Ҫѡ
      ߬ Ѽ .. Ĭ 1970- ߴ ѽ
      , ߫ѡ ԡѡ . .󫽫, ѻ߬ ի .
      .󫽫 . ټ ӵѼ, 󫿼 ի󡿬, իԴ
      ѽ. ԫ Ѽ ߽үڿ ߽ѡ . ߴ
      Ѻ ӿ 쿬 ѡ ѽټ Ӵ ѡ
      Ѽ. ſ ( ߫᡿ ӿӡ 300–400), ߫Ӫ޿ Ҭ᡿
      Ѯ, ի ѡ . ߻ӿ὿ " ",
      ᡫ󿽿 ١Ѯ Ҭ ѡ. ġ ѽү
      ԫ, ԫ .ѽ — ѽٮ 󿪡, ޿ ᬿ ếѽټ
      իټ Ἷ, ԫ ߫񿡴ߴ Ѽ ѡ ѽ ԫ.
      ġ ٽ ߫ѡ ӫӽ, , ԫ ӫի, ԫ ԫ Ҽ ѽ,
      ߬ , , ѡ ѡỿᡡ.
      ѻ߬ 󽴽 Ѻ ٽ, Ὣ , ԫ ߴ
      ٽ ., ٽٮ , ԫٮ ỿ
      , Ѽ ԫ , ԫӫ ߴ, — Ѽ ѡ, ѡ
      , Ѽ ߻޿ߴ . . ٽ ѡ ѽ ,
      ӿ ԫ, Ҽ . ټ ӿ
      󿪡߬ ٽ ߽᡿ Ѯ, ԫ :
      "ᬫ 󫽴 ". , ԫ ѻߴ, իӫޫ ὿, ԫ ߽ ߽ߴ
      ߽ѡ ., ԫ , ӿ, իӫޫ.
      ԫ, ԫ ߻ӫ߿ ߽ߴ. ӿ 쿬 ӿ, ԫ .ѽ
      , ի ԫӫ ߴ Ѭ ӿ 쿬. ٽ
      ὿. Ҫ ὿ ὿ ǡԫѼ. ὴ ƫ ԫ Ѻ񿽿 ߬,
      ӿ󫺿 . 󫺿 , ỿ὿ 쿬-Һѵ
      ӫ .󫽫 ԫ ὿ -ԫ ỿ߿ ѡ
      ӫ 󽴽 ., ԫٮ ѡ ӫ Կ ӫ񴼿 ԫ
      ߽.
      Ѽ 1989. .ѽ : "ѡ ӫ ӿ.
      , ի Ҽ Կի, Ѻ ߴ Ѯ, Ѯ
      Ҽ὿ Ӵ Ѻ ߴ . ѡ ߯ ޡү
      Կ Ѯ 1917. ѻ ԫ ὿ ߯ ӫү —
      ὿, ӫ, ѽ, ҡԫ, ѻ ի
      72 ...".
      ū߽ ӫ .ѽ ӿ߽ 16 ὴ 1991.,
      ԫ ӿ߽ ߡ Ԭ ӿѡټ
      ߽Ἷ

(c) . ҽ