ᡡ ἴԿ
			     ´ ⽿

							   , #02/2003                                    

. Ἳ  ԫ  Ѭ տ .    - Ѽ
Ử. ԫ Ѽ ѽ.    Ӵ  Ԭӫ  
ᮡ...   Ѽ  Ӵ.

                                            ἴԿ  񡿬.
                                                                  . 111

			     Ѽ ԫӿ

潫 ߬, ԫ  ߫ ѡ  ޿   
ӿ. ԡ, ԫ   Ѽ  ѡ . 轿ѡ  
 ɿ ߫ ߵ. ġ ߿ӫ὿  ӫի  ӿԿἿ
 Ѽ  񿽿, իԴ Ἷ ὿ ӿ ԫ ߼ѽ
ߡԿ.

ӫ޽ Ѭ.   Ѯ   XX ԫԿ ὿ ᬿ ԫ 
ѽ ѡ  үڿ, ԫ    ԫӿ ߽󡫮
Ӭ. ߼Ӵ  ߽᡿ Ѯ,   ի񿽿 , ԫ
߫὿ ѡ  ޿  .  ԫ Ӽᵿ (ѡ
) ٽ   ᡿    ݼ߬ ᡿
. ´ ū߬.     ޿ ӫ߿ 
һ. ƫ ߽ ӫ  󫺼
ӫ  Ѯ  ѡ  ӫ. 諡, ٽ 
񿡿 ӫѡ ԫ, ѽ   ߬ ѡ
޿   ѽѡѡ  ѡ὿ᡡ.

  1989 . ӿ ߬߬  Ѵ ߿ ǽѬ߿ II ۴  ԫ, ԫ 
ѡ 濡 ߫ ߿  ᵿ ѫߡᡡ
ѻ߿ӫᡡ ѡ߽ҪѽѮ  Ӵ ߬ ߽󡫮 Ӭ.
     ޽  -  ӫѡ ѡ߽ҪѽѮ 
ӫԫ ӿի Ἣ, Ѽڿߴ ᡫ  ѡ 
Ѯ. Ѽѡ  ߫᡿Ѽ ԫ ߿ ӿտ ẫ߽ 
Ѽ ѻտ ӫ  ѯڿߴ ѡ  ޿  Xӿ. 
Ѻҽ  1992 .  ߻Ӵѡ ߿ ߴ ӫٮ տ
Ҽ, ߫Ӫڿ Ӽᵿ Կ  2000 ޿. ѫի񿼫 ٽ
, ߿ѼԿӫ   Ҽѡԫ, ѽ  һټ.
 ԫ,  ߽ѡ Ѯ ӿ ǽѬ߿ II, ӿ
ߴ  ߫ᡡٮ  1992 . ԫ-ƿի߬ ߽߬ Կ,
  ԫ Ѽ Ҫ 󿽿  .

		  	      ݡҺ

 ᡡ, ߫Ӫ ѡ  ޿  , ӫ 
ߡ  <쿬>, ߫ᡡ  Կ ߿Ѽ ὿ . 
ٽ ѽ ٮ ӿ,   1996 .  ߿   
ӡ -   www.pstbi.ru,  2014. martyrs.pstbi.ru.   Ҭ  ᡡ 
  1990 .,    Ὣ  ừѡ.

  1994 . ԫ-ƿի߬ ߽߬ Կ   
߫᡿ Ӽᵿ ߿Ѽ <Ѯ ԫӿ ߬ ߽󡫮
Ӭ>  ɫ߿߬  ҡѡ ߽᡿, ᪡ѮѮ 
ԫӫ    ᡡ  ѡ  ߻񡿬 ߬
߽󡫮 Ӭ, ޿  ,   1917 .  һ޿
   һ , ߬, Ѽ.

ӫἼү   - ߫᡿ ᡿ ߬, Ԭ ӿԫ,
Կӫ᡿, Խ   Ӽᵿ - ٻ  ߡ󡫼 ݡҺ
( 50 ѽѬ ὿  ԫ ӫѬ  ӫ ).
ѡٮ ԡٮ ߫񡿬  ӼԿ ԫ-ƿի߬
Կ ߿ѼԿ һڿ ѡ  񿡿 ߯
Ѵѽ.   ᡡ ޿   ѡ߽ҪѽѮ  Ӵ
Ҫ ѡ  21 .1 ѽѬ. ᬫ  ӫ񫽪ߴ. 
Կ ԫ ߴ ӫѡ  ӫ,  󿽫,
 , ӫ, ẼԿ Ӽᵿ. ᬫ, Ԭ, ԫӿ
߫᡿.

			   ẫ ᡡ

Cѵ὿ ὿ ү Ѽ,  ߫  ԫӫ
߬ ӿ ߻ߴ   ᡡ. ġ ߫Ӫ
߽ѽ ừѼ  ߫ ѡ  ޿  
(ӫ ߼. www.pstbi.ccas.ru).  ԫ ߫Ѽ  ի  ү ᡬ.
ԫ ߫ѡ ѡ,  ԫ ѡԿүߴ ҡټ Ἷ ӫټ
 ᬽѡ, ߬Ἷ     ݻ , Ἷ 
ӫ߫   󿡿ѽ ᬽѡ, ᡿Ѽ ԫѽ .
    ߡ -   ӿߴ ӫѡ, Կ
ԫἿ ߽Ҫ ԡ ᡿. ԫ c ߬᡿ү  .
     FotoStyler, ԫٮ ٽ ѡ  ߫
߬ӫ.



ū ӫ   ᡡ  ѡ 
 ѡ, ޿ ի Ѽ
 ӿѡ  ѽ

 ᡿ ߬ 󫽴 ӫ ӫ  ߽Կ  Կ
Ӭ    Ѽ   Ѭ󿺿, ᡿ ӫᡡٮ
߬, ߬  ߽󿴼 (ӿ,   <> - Կ 
ѡ߽ҪѽѮ, ޿ ѽѡ  ѡ 
ӿѡ  ѽ).

 ԫ  Ѽ  ԫ ѬԿߴ  ߫ѡߴ, 󽴯ߴ
 .

			      ӫѼ

 ѽ ߬ ӫѼ, 󫺡ڿ  ӫ ԫ Ҫ 
ӫ񡫮,  Ѭ  ӫԫ ѴѽԿ.

 ӫѼ - ԫ ա߬: ޿   ᡿ѡ
ἴ    ѻ ڿ ߿ Ӽᵿ,  ѡ
ԫ ߫    ޿ Ѽ ߬
ӫ. Ὣ , ٮ ի - Կ տ  -߬.
ԫ  ѽߴ  ԫ Ѽ.  ѡ ԫ ߴ, ӿ, 
ӫ ӫѡ, ӿѼ  Կ,  
ӫү Ӽᵿ.     տ -߬,    
޿ ա߬   -ԫ ӫԫ.

ԫ ӫѼ - ԫ ѡѡ  ѡ ѡ  . ,
 ѽѬ Ҫ ӿ߽ѡ    ( ᡫᵿ2  ԫ)
ԫ  ڿ  ߬ ߽󡫮 Ӭ  񫽪ѡ ߴ  
Ἷ,   ѡ, ӿ ѡѡ ߿. ĻԿ ế
ԫ  ݽѬӫ,  Ѽ   ԡ ᡿ ( ԫӫ  ߬ᡫ
)   ߴ.

 ӫѼ -  Ѽ 󫮡. Ӽᵿ һ  
ԫ, ,   Կ,   Ѽ  Ѭ󿺿ԫ 
Ѽ ừߴ   񿡿.  ᬿ Կ ừѡ
ᡬ  󫺼 ,  񡫼 ѽѬ   ạ  
.  ߫  ߿ ӡ ӫἼ, ԫ ٴ
 ߫ԡ <󫮡>,   ԫѡѼ ѡ    .


 
ꬫ < ѡ  ߻񡿬 ӫ߿߬> 


			   ߻ѵ  Դ

ѡ   ѫԿ߬ ѽ ѻӫԫ.

ừѡ    ѽѡ , ӿѼ
Ӽᵿ Ҭӿӫ  ӿ , 
Ҫ ӿ   ߬ ѡ:
߽Ҫѡ, , ѡ, ԯ, ᬽѡ.
ӫ   Կ   ߴ - 
  Ӽᵿ.  ừߴ ,  񫻫ѽ ѡ
ߴ  ѡӿ  ѽ.

ԫ ԫ Ҫߴ   ᡡ,  ѽ ߴ 
<տ Ử>. ,  񡫮 ᬫ Ử  ߫Ӫߴ ѽ 
ԡ ᬫ- һ  ӫ  իѡ. 
   Ӽᵿ  , ӿ, ᡡ ӿ߬
ѻտѮ,  ѻ߿ӫᡡ ѡ, ߽Ҫ޿   ӿի.

ū  ޽ Ҫ   ѻտ. ƫ  ӽ߬ Կ
ԫ Ѽ ԫ, ᬫ  󬽯ѡ ѡ  ѻ߿ӫᡡ,  
   , ԫ   .  ԫ Ѭ  ӫԫ.

Ѽ,   ѡ ū߬ Կӫ Ὣ Կ 17
ѽѬ. Դ  Ἣ ѽ ᬿ Ѯ ӡ  - ᬫ ߽ 
ٽ   ٽ, ԫ Ҫ   <>, <ԫ>  ..  ԫ
ѽ, ѡ   , ѡ .

ӿᵿ , ѡ  Ѭ󿺿 - Կ߬  . ԫ
ߴ ạѡ  ỿ᡿:  <ӿ> -Ӭ󡫼 ߴ 
񡿼 <>,  -߬ -  Ҽ,  ӫἼټ Ѽ ԫ ѽѬ
񡫺  .   , ԫ   񡫼 ѽ ӫԫ 
ἫԡԿ  󡿼ѽԿ Ἷ ỿ  ߬ ӿ.
ūԫ ӿիߴ ԫ  ѫ - ѡ ᡿ .

 ߽ Ӽᵿ  ޫ һ ѽ һ  ẽ
ԫ   ạ Ѽ, ԫ Ҫ ѽ ߽, ԫ  ٽ
ӫ᡿  ᡡ  Կ ᡿.

ᬫ, ߼Ӵ   ӫѼ,  ӫ񫽪ߴ, ӿѼ 
ѡ߿,  Ҫ   Ѻҽ.   Ѽ  ӿ  ,
 ߽  ԫ,  Ѽ ߴ  Կ Ѯ.

			 ޡѼ 

 ԫ Ѽ  , ԫ  ߫񡿬Ἷ 
ӼԿ ԫ-ƿի߬ ߽߬ Կ   ӫټ
ڡἿ, - ԫ   ᡡ.

 ԫ Ӽᵿ   ټ Ѽ. ᪡Ѯ޿ ԫ 󽴯ߴ
 ӫѡ,   ӿ, ѫᡡ Ҭ߿, -
 ѫỿ߿, ӿ, ӿ߽ᡡ ѽټ
߽ѽ-ݡҺἿ.

ޫ Ѽ  ٻߴ ӫټ ڡἿ 
ԫ-ƿի߬ ߽߬ Կ  Ѭ տ . 
  ѽ, ừѡ ߻ѵ ᡬ, ᡡ  ԫ ԫ
ᡫߴߴ  ӡү .

			 Ѻҽ

諼ӡ  ᡡ  ߡ  ѡ ѽ Ӵ Ѻ
.

-,   Ԭ , ᡫ  ѡ
޿  ߽ү ,  ᬪ ԫѽ   
.    Ѽѡ     ԫ ѡ
߼ӿ὿  󫽯  Կ߫. ᡬ ᡡ 
ӿ ừ ԫ <ѽ ԡ>   ԫӿ Ѯ ӫ.
櫺ѽ  Ѯ ѽ,  , ߫ ѡ  
ѡ3 ɫ߿ XX .

ӫ ԫ, Ӽᵿ   Ҫ ߻ߴ ӿ ԫ  
߻  ޿  . ,   ߡ ޽ ԡ
᡿ Ѽ 700 ᡿, ߫Ӫ  4500  ѡ
 ߻񡿬 ӫ߿߬.

ٻѡ ӿ    -߬,  ޽ 16 . , 
 ߿Ѽ ߬.  Ѽ ߻ߴ http-  ᡡ, 
 ԫ Ӽүߴ   < > -  ӫ,  ѡټ
ԫѡѼ ߬ Ӽᵿ. ƫ   -߬   
ԫ  ӿ, ԫ   ӡ-ӫ.

			 ߬ ߡ ԫ.

  ᡡ ߻ѵ ӫἼ ԫԿ߬ Ӽ ߻߫ ѡ
, ԫ ѽ  ߬ߴ  ѡٮ ѡ.

 ӫ߽ѡ ޿    ӿ ٽ ỿ   -
< ѡ  ߻񡿬4 ɫ߿߬>,  ѮἿ,  ԫ
ѡ  Ӭ ߫Կ    ѡ߬ . ӿ
  Ѯ ߻὿ ѡ  ԫ, ᬪ   ԫ
 ᡡ.

ԿԿ߬ Ԭ ߫ᡡ ѡ  ạ Ѻ 󫽴
ٴ Ӵ ᬫӡѮ, ӫ߽ ѡѡ Կ ߬
߽󡫮 Ӭ  XX ., ӫԫ  ԫ, ԫ ӫի񿽫   
.

,  ߡ Կ ᡡ ѡ ޿  ԡټ  ԫ 
Ѯ ,    Ѫ < ѡ>5. ūӫѡ   ԫ ԫ,
ԫ   ޿ ӿӡ  25  , Ѽ ѡ
  ᡡ. ߡټ  ߿ ԫ ԫѡ   ӿ - 
ԫ   ѽ  . , ԫ   ԡ 37-
  ެ὿.    ԫ  ѽ  Ѯ 
޿,    ߻߫ ޿  ԫ .

 ԿԿ Ѽӿ, ӿ, ү ᬫӡ: 
< ѡ> ߫    - ,  <ӫ>
ӿիߴ   ߼ѡ ҬѽѮ ԫ ᡿ᵿ.

   ᡡ ѻ . Ѯ  Ѯ ߴ  Ѽ
  ߴ ѽѬ  ѡ.

			 ߻ѬԿ

 ߬, ԫ   Ѻҽ  Ѭ. 
᡿ү ѡ , ߫ѡ᡿  ѬԿӫ  Ҭ,
޿ѡ Ӽᵿ ừѡ - ӿѼ    .

  - ߫᡿ <߿>  <쿬>  ߿Ѽ
ݽѬӫ տ <>. Ѯ Ҽѡ  ߿Ѽ һ
ѻټ ԫ,  ѡ ạߴ  Ѽ,   ߫Ӫ᡿.
  <> 󫽿  ѽ Ӽ὿  һӴ
: ӿ ԫ ٮ Ҽѡ  ӿӫߴ  ѽٮ,
  ԫ (ԫ) - 񡿼 ߽,  ѫի Ѭ󿺿.
 ߴ  Ӽᵿ   ӫ Ҭӿӫᡡ  
ݽѬӫٮ տ.  ԫ  Ѽ  ѡ   - ߫Ӫѽ
 - ԫԿ߬ Իߴ   <쿬>.  Ѻҽ  
߫ߴ ѫạ < ᡿>   ޿  .

ԫ  󫺼  ԫ Կ үү Ӽᵿ - 
ڡ ߿Ѽ ߬   ߫ Ҫ Ѯ, -  Կ ԫ 
ԫ  ӿ ѫի񿼫Կ   ӫ߼ Ҫ Ҽѡ.

                             * * *

Ἳ ѡ, ѽ ҡ߽ ԡ  տ.  ѽ ѡ ԫ,
ԫ Կ     Ἷ, - Ὣ.   Ҫ ߫Ѽ Ѽ, ի
 ߬ү ,   - ӿ Ѻ.  󫺡
ѡ:    , ԫ   ,  Ѻ, Դ  
 Ѽ.  ԡ    ޿  .  իԴ
 ԫ ҺѼ  ѡ,  ,     ҺѼ .
  ԫ ,  Ѽ.     .   -  .

 
´ ⽿ - ٮ ԫ ӡ < >. 諡ԡٮ ѽ.:
(095) 253-92-27, e-mail:mikeg@pcworld.ru.

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1  ѡ ԫ ӿ.
2 ᡫᵿ - ӿ߽ѡ   . ū 񿵿 ߴ ߫Կ
߬ ,  ԡԿ, 񫽪  ѽ  ԫ
񡫮  ᡫӫᡡ,   ԫ, ԫ   ӫ񫽪
Ѯ  ߽ ߬ ߼Կ (ӿ, ԫ 󽴽ߴ  ߡ 
ӫӫἿ,  ὿ ߵѽѡ ӿ ѡ  Ѽ  . .)
3 ѡ - , Ҽ޿ (Ҽѡ)    Ѽ ѡ 
Ӭ  XX .
4 c񡿬 - , ޿    ޿ߴ  
5 ū ᡡټ   ӫ߫ .. ѽ <ĵѡ ԿԿ ѡ
 ߬ү ߽ү Ӭ>.  ὿  ޽  ᡿Ѽ <ԫӿ
ѡ, ỿᡡ ӫ>..

Ѻ:

-  ĵѡ ԿԿ ѡ  ߬ү ߽ү Ӭ  1917  1952
.

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ԫ Ӽᵿ.
  1. ᡡ "ѡ ߻񡿬 ߬ ߽󡫮 Ӭ XX ."
  2. ѽ .. ĵѡ ԿԿ ѡ ߬ү ߽ү Ӭ 1917 1952 .