100-Կ ߴ ԫӿ Ӭ, ӿ,
´ (1907 - 1971)

´ - ԫ ԡ ߬ ӿѽ, ӫѽ ѽѺ ӫ ꫡ ١ Ѽѡ , һ ԫ ի ѽ, ӫߴ 24 (7 ) 1907 , ѡ ᡿ ɫ ᡡ . 7 1924 , ѡ ӫѡ ١, ߬ӫԿ ߬ߴ ѵ ´ , ѼԿԡ ѽѬ Ἣԫѽ . ԡ, 񫽯, Ѽѡ Ѽ ߬ ߬ ߽󡫮 Ӭ ( Ѽѡ ٽ ӿի᡿ Ӭ ӻ. Ѫ߬ ӿ ӫ ӿѼ , 1917-1922 ի Ѻѡ Ѯ ӿ ƿի) ὿ ١ ӫ Ӽӫ᡿ Կ.

Ѽ ѡ ߬߬ ѡ 󫻿ߡ ѽѡ ´ ԫ ߽Ҫѡ ẽ ߬, ѡ߬ . Ἷ ԫ Ӵ ߴ, 񡿼 , ӫի ӫ (ӫټ), ڿ ѻ߬ ɫԫ߬, ߡ Ҫ ߯ .

ի ᡫѡ ´ ߫ѡ ѽ 󽿴 ѫѡٮ (, 11.03.1937), ѻ߬ 諽ѡ߬, ޿ 櫽 տѻ߬ ߬. ġ ٽ ߽񡿼 ԫѽѼ ѡ߬ Ӵ ߽񡿼 ټ Ѯ ߬.

ԫ ѽټ ٽ ԡѡ ѫѡټ ƿի (ừټ 10.11.1937), ѻ߬ ⫼ѽ߬, ѽټ տѻ߬ ǽ-Կ߬.

Ӭ ѫѡ ƿի ի Ѯ ´ ޿ ҺѮ, ӫ ӫ (ӫ, 14.12.1966 տѻ߬ ɫԫ߬), ǽѬѴ ѽ ( 15.12.1987, 1920- ٽ , ԫ ѡ, ߽ - ӫԫѮ, ߻ ߽᡿ ի󡿬 ůԿ߬ ѡ߬ ) 쿬 ѡ (ԫ ѡ߬ 쿬 ߿ , 1980 ߬ ӫԫѴ).

ߴԿԡ ´ ߽Ҫѡ . ӿ ƿի, , ѻ߬ , ᡫߴ ѻѡټ ԡ ߽Ҫѡ Ѯ, ߫὿ ߽߫Ҫѡ տ, ԫ ߽ ѫѡ , ѻ߬ 諽ѡ߬. Ҫѡ Ѽ ٽ ѡ իӫ Ѯ ӿ ƿի ӿ 䫡߬ . 黫߽ Ѫ ѡ ӿ, 7 ѽ, ´ ߴ 䫡߬ ᡿տ Ѯ ӿ ƿի.

ū ᡿ ѡ 1928 ´ ẽ ѽ ѡ ߬. 28 ԴӴ 1929 ޿ ѡ Ӭ Կ . ġ ٽ ԫ 15 Ӵ 1929 . ٽ Ҫѡ ߫ټ ᡿Ѽ ӿ 諽 . 58-10 ӿᡡ ѡ "󴺿 ᬵټ Ӭ󡿬Ἷ, ѡ ѽ Կ߫߬ ᵿ" ӿѡ 3 ٽ 񡯯 Ǻ. ߻᡿, ޿ߴ ߽߫ᡡ, 23-ԡ ѽѬ ӿ Դѽ Ѻ. ѫѡ Ӫ ԫ Ѽ ٽ ѡ ѻ߿ӫᡡټ ӫἿ, ѻ߬Ἷ, ѡἿ, ի޿ߴ ٽ. ᬫ Կ ߡѮ޿ Կ ´ ߽߬ ԫӿ-Ӭټ ᡿.

15 1933 ´ ٽ ѡ ӡҽߴ ߬, ӫ Ѯ Ѽ ٽ Ԭᡫ ӫ߬, Ѽ ӿ޽ ߬ߴ ߬߬ Կ, ԫ ޿, ԫ ѽ ӫի, ԫ ߬, ԫ "ѽ" ߬. 񫪡-ӼѽѼ ẽ Ѫѡ, ԫ ߽ ѡ ԫӿ߬ Һ, ᡴ ٽ Ἷ Ѽ "ӫ޽ѡ ". ƫ 1940 Ѽ Ὣ ߴ ߡԿ 񿼫Կ 󫺼 ߬. 1938 ´ ѡߴ ӫ ӫ, ߫Ԭ ի ѡ߬ ߫ ӫ. 22 1941 .. ٽ , ӿ 󫿡߬ү ߽Ҫ. Իߴ ӫ. ѡ ߴ ѽټ ԫټ ӫ. ġ ѽ ẫᡡ ҽӡ ᡵ ٮ ߫ ´ ߴ " ". ū߽ ᡿ ҽ߬ ҪѮ-ա߬ ( ᵿ ļ߬) .. һ ߫ ԫ (?) ӿ߬ ӻ. ԫ 񫽪Կ ѡ-Կӿ, һ 񫽪 ԫ߬ ߽Ҫ ӻ. ạ ԡү 񫽪 ԫ ߬ ӫ߿ 񫪡. ´ ߻ 󴺿 Կ ạѡѼ Ѫ᡿ ӿԿѼ ӻ. " ߻ ѡ 󫺼 ߬ ӫԿ󡿬 ѫի񿼫 Ѻᬫ ѽѬ. 󽴽 ԫ ѽѬ, , 󫺼ү ԡү 󫮡. ѽѬ , , ѻի, ѡ, ԫ . ѡ , , , ὿, ӡ, ӫѽ ѽ. 󽴽 ӿټ Ἷ, ѽѡټ Ѽ ӫѽ ӫ Ѽѵ . Ҭ ѡ, ԫ ߫ټ Ἷ ߴ 󫿼 ߬ Ἷ, Կ - "ѡѽ ѡ", , ᵿ "Ậ ӿ": , ԡ, - ߼, Ҽ: ӫի Ѻ Ҭ ߼ԡ! ᬫ ޿ Ѯ , ӿԿ᡿ Ѽ Ѯ߬ ٬ѡ! ӿѽ ޿ Ѽ, ԫ ԫ ᬫ߽ѡ. ӿ὿, Ҫ, 󿽿 ӫ ὿ ٻ ӿ, ԫ Ѽ Ҽ, . , ԫ "ᬫ 󫮡" ᬫ, ԫ Ѻᬫ , ԫ , ѻӿѽ 󫮡 Ѻѡ - ѽ ߫. , ٽ ᵿԫ. 󫮡, ԫ ӿԿ᡿ , 񫽪ѡ , ߽ ԫ, ԫ ԫ, ڿԿ ԫ ҪѼ. ѫ ԫ , ߴ , ԫ ġ ߽Ҫ, ߻ 󫿡߬ , Ѯ . , ӿٽ ạѡѼ ӿ߬ ӻ, ӫ὿ Ҽѡ, ߻ӫ߿, Ѽ ٽ . , ԫ ٽ 񫪡 ӫ޽ѡ . ѽ ѡ ӫү , Կӿ, ѡ ߻ѵԿ, , ӻߡү ԫ ԫ, ٽ " ӫ". ߡټ ѽ ߯ 󫮡 ٽ ѡ ӫ ѫի񿼫 ԫ߬ ӿ ӫ᡿ ѽѡټ - ѽѡټ ѡѡ ԫѡ, ӫ ạѡ ӫ. ꡫ ߬ Ѯ Ӵ ߻὿ , ԫ, ԫ ӻ , ѡ, ٽ ߻ѡ Ἷ ӫ. ѽ - ԫ ߽Ҫ Ҭ ԫ ӫᡫ. 髺ӿ 櫺ѽ, 󡴽 ġ Ѯ ! ſԫ, , ߴ, ߬ Ӵ, ԫ ԫ , ߬ ạѡ. ԫ ٽ, Ԭߴ. ӫӴ Կ Ҫ, ٽ Ѭ - ߫ Ѽѡ Ὣ Ѻ. Ѯ Ҭ ѽ, ӡ, ޿, ᬿ- ѿ, ԫ ӫԿ ԫ ߿ ѻ: ߼Կ ߼ ӿի񿽫 . ԫѽ ὿ , ԫ Ӵ ߼ԫѡ ߫ӿߡѡ ټ ӫԿ󡿬 ѽ ի񿽫. ԫ ᬫ ߽. ߬ Ѽ һѡ ӻ, ߽ӫ὿. ū ὿ Ҫ ٽ Ҫѡ ҽ Ӽ, Ѽ, Һ὿ , 񫽪ѡ ٽ Կ Ѻ ߬ ѻ ߫ 󫿼 ᡬἿ ա Ѯ. ӫ߿ ᬿ-ԫ Կ Ѫѡ Ѯ ӫ. ի ޽ - ӫ὿ ӫ, ӫҽ , ߬ ߼, ὿ ӫ ѻӿѽѮ, ԫ Կߴ. ӫ񫽪Ὣ . Ѽ , , ߬ѡӿӫ὿ ὿ ԯ ᡬἿ . ի, ߬ Կ ߻὿ - Ѯ. ա - , Ӫ ᬫ. ὿, ߴ ԡ, ὿, Ѽ ٽ Ѻ ߿, ừ ٽ ڡ. Ѽ ὿ ὿. ԡ Կ ߴ Ԭ, ѻߴ ӫ ԫ, Ӫߴ . ӫ Ӵ Ѯ, ߬ ߫, Ѽ ա, Ѽ ӫ߿ ӫ. ѻӿ - ի. Ὣ ӻ ԫ ߬ ѽѬ. , -ԫ - һ ҵѽѽ - ὿. (ū Ὣ ԡ, ԫ ޿ ӫ߫, ᡵ ߴԬ ӫ ὿ Կ߬ ѼѼ ߼Կ ߬ ԫ Ӵ: ᬿ , , ). Ѫ὿ ѻ Ὤ (ԫ ի ѻ), ӫ ὿ ߿ ҼӬ. ޿ - ᡬ ߫Ѽ! ӿ὿, Ѫ, ҽѪ ԫ, Ѽ, ߬ "" ԫӫ. Ҭ - Ҫ. ԫ ߪ ԫ Ҭ ߪ. Ӵѡ ᬫ, ԫ . . ƫ ӫ ԫӫ. ᡬ ޽ Ԭٽ һ ӫԿ󫻫 ߬ Ὤ, ߬ 󫽴 һٮ ѽ. 䫽 ԫ ѽ Ҫ Ѽ. ūԫ ѡ ӡҽ ޽, , ԫ "ѽ ѽᡫ". - ! 쿬 ӿ ѽ! ߯ ѽաҽ - ߽ߴ ѡ Ѽѵ . 翼 ! ƫ Ҫ ߫ ӫ߿ ߬ ӫү ټ, , ᬫѵ, . ӿ߽὿ - Կ޿. ҽ: 󡿡, ѻ - . ƫ 񡴽 ޽. ū޽ ѡ: ߫ế, ԫ ӫԡ - 󫿼, ޽. 欫 ޽ - Ҫ . ԫ ӫ : , ԫ, ٪ѡ ӫѡ ԫ Ѯ - ޿! Ҫ, Ѻ ὿ Կտ ӿٮ ԡٮ 󫻽! ƫ ѡ - 23 ὴ 1943 , ѡ ߡ Ӽ - 󫿼 ԫټ Ѽ ӫѡ! ūԫ Ի󿽿 Ӽӫ᡿. , , ԫ ѡ 󫮡. ӿ ߴ ԫѽ ӿի񿽫 ߴ 󫺼 Ҽ. ū߽񡴴 󫺼 ٽ Ӽ᡿, ߡ 1945 . ū ٽ ѽ. -ԫ ٽ ӿ Ѽ "񪿻 񬫮". - ԫ , Ѽ ڡ, Ѽ ԫ ѽ. ū ӫ ү-ԫ Ӽ. ޿. ѺѼ - Ѯ , ԫ ߴ ӫ : , ߿ ߬ Ѯ. 䫼 . ԫ ԫ ҽ, ӫ - 񪿻, 񪿻 ٽ ᡿ ߫ ߻ԫ. Ѽ Ѻ үԡٮ ѽ߫. ᡫ󿽿 , ߻, Ѽ ᬫ-ԫ ٽ . 櫫񿽿 , ᡴ ӫѮټ ӫ. ԫ ӿһ Ѯ ӫ߬ޡ Ѻ, Կӿ߬ ѽ, - . ⽴ - ᡬ "" Ӵ , Ҵ . ƫ ٽ ԫӫ, ԫ Ѭԫ, - ߽὿. - ӫ 񪿻. ԫ, ߽ , Ӵ, ѡ . ѡ ߬ӫԿ, Խ ӿ߬Ҵ ԫߴ ټ , ߬ 񬫽. ὿ ӿٽ ạѡ ѽ , Ӵ ᡿ ߻ ӫѮٮ ӫ. ٽ ԫ. ޿ ὿ ᡬ һӫ ӫߴ ӽ. ƫ ᬿ ݬᪿ ὿, ѽ ߻ ѺѪԿ, ߽, , իҴ Ѻ ѽ. Կ Ҽ ᡬ ὿ , ὿ Ѯ". . . ӫԫү ߽Ҫ, ѡ ߬ ѻ Ѭ 1942 . ѽ ӽ ᡿ Ѯѡ Ѽ ѡἿ ὴ. ߬ Ѫԫ 󫮡, ᡿, ߿ ѻԫӿٮ Իԫ Ӭ Կ, ԿԿ, ߬ѡԿ ߫ԡ ԫӡԿ. ߫ѡ, ٽ ỿѮ. ѽټ ٽ ԡѡ .. , ԫ ἴԡ Ѽ, ԫ , ԽὫ ߫ ߬ ѡ ټ Կ޿ߴ Ѽ ѽѬ Ѻ߿ , ẫ᡿, "߫ ӿѪԿ". Կ, Ѫ, ߫ ի󡫮 , աԡ, ѽ߬ ߿իѮ - ᡫߴ "󫿼". ӿԿ , ү , ߽ ´ ӫ Ἣ "ѼԿ", һ ԡ , Ԭ. , Ѽѡ, , ԫ ӿԿ - ӫ, "ӿԫԿ" ߫Ӫ᡿, ߡ - Ѽ Ἣ᡿, ԫ Ҭ Ἷ ߿ѽѼ. Ѽ "ӿԫԿ" - ѡὫ߬, ߫, ի - ٽ ´ . ӫѼ, ٽ Կټ "ӿԫԫ ", "ѼԿ" ԡѡ , ѡ ԫ , ӫ - ӿ ҡԿ. ޿ߴ ѡ Կ "ӿԫἿ " ߬ ߫ѡ . "ټ ޿ "ӿԫԫ", ᬫ , ٽ ѽѮ, ޫ "񪿻 񬫮", ԫټ ѽ ߽Ҫ Կ ߽񡿮 󫮡. Կٮ ӿԫ - ԫ ѽѬ ᬫ ߫ ҽ, ԫ ޡ ѡ. , ѽ, ѽѬ ٮ ӫԫ, ѡ߬ ٽ ټ ޿ ӿԫԫ. 쿬 ߽὿ ޡ ߽ - ߻߫ ߽ ټ Ԭ Ἷ, ߡ ԡ ٽ ߬ѽ. Ѽ߽ѡ ٽ ѽ. Ѽ ѽ ٽ Կ-ҫ. ޿ һ󽴽, ԫ ԫ ӫ, - 񿼿 ӫ Ѯ (ٽ ᬿ ѽ ᡿). ѫիٮ Ѽ ӫ . ԫ Ҫ - -ԫ , ӿѼ ٮ ӫԬ ӫ. ѽ Ӭ, , ԫ ᬫ-ԫ ѡ ٽ, ߫ ӡ . Ҫѡ ٽ ԫ ԫѡ. ٽ Ἣ ѺӴ. ѡ, ߻ ٽ ѡ: ӫԿ ٽ ӫԡ, Ӫߴ ᬿ ԫ, ԫ ᡿, ԫӫ ٽ , ٽ Ѫ Կ, ӫ߿, Ѽ ӿὫ. ᬫ ӿӫ ѽѬ! ԫ ѽѬ Ἣ ӫԫ, Ѽѡ, ԫٮ, ӫ Ѯ ᮵ѡ ѽ ѽ " Ἷ" ެ-ѼԬ, ߴ ټ Ӵټ ẫ. ᬫ ٽ ӫ Ѽ , ᬫ ٽ Ἣ ѽ, Ѯ, ᡡ Ѽ ". 1946 ´ իӫ ѡ, ү Ὣԡ ١, Ѻ ѡߴ ( ߽ѡ ի󡿬: "ԫ ١ ٽ"). ƫ 1946 ´ ٽ ӿѡ ߬߬ ӿտѮ Կ ߫᡿ ѡ ᬫ Կѽ ǽѬ߿, ӫ ߬߬, ѡ߬ ߫ ཫի. ѡ, ԫӫ ١ ߴ ڿ Կѽ ǽѬ߿, ٻѡ ӫѬ .. . ԫ Ѽѡ ´ ᵿѮ ӫ߻ Ἣ ߬ ӫ (߫ ᡿, ҽ . һ ӫ). ᡿ ᬫߴ ߴ 񡿼 ڿߴ ߫Ѽѡ - ӿԫ ӬѼ Ѽ Һѵټ, Կ ޿ߴ . ӿի ƿի. ѽѻٮ ӫ߿, ޿ ӿ߬ ҽ 꼻ԫ߬ ߬߬ ҡ߿, ѽٮ ԫ ߬ ( ߫ѡԿ ެ ԫ߬), .. Һѵ ٽ ѡ Ӭ . ѽ , ԫ ѽ ..Һѵ ὿ Ӭ. .. ..Һѵ Ҭ "޽ ", ѡ Ӭ-ԫӿ߬ ѡ. ӿѺ ߬, .. Һѵ 䫡߬ , Կѽ ƿի, .. . ū Կ ´ ..Һѵ ߫ Ӭ ߻᡿ ӿի ƿի, Ѽѡ. 1960- .. ӿ߿ ѽ ѽ߬ ѽ ߬߬ ӿտ ѻ߬ (߽ ӫ) 髽߬ ſԿӿ (). ´ Ӽ ߽ٮ Ӭٮ ѡ, ӡ ߬߬ ӿտ, ٻ ѡ ߬߬ ӿտ. "ӡ ߬߬ ӿտ" ٽ ѡ ߬ Ѯ. ߡ 󡿼᡿ ߽ ߴԿԿ Ѯ ´ ѽ, ԫӫ ٽ Կ. ġ ԫӫߴ ᬫ ԫٮ ( ᡿ ԫӫ ԫ Ѽ ), ѡٮ ѮѼ ӿ ƿի ԫӿ ߬ ߽󡫮 Ӭ.  ߻᡿ ὿ ӫ 󿪡, ѫ , ѫ߽ټ ݡҺẼ ӫ񫽪 ߴ ߽ Ѯ. .. ߫ 1920- ӿ ԫӿ ߬ ߽󡫮 Ӭ, ߼Ӵ ѽ޿ ӿ߬, ԫټ ٽ ԫ Ѵѽ. ԫ ´ ߫ѡ Ӭ󡫮 ԫӿ ߿ Ӽᵿ, һߴ Ҽѡ, Ѭ ԫ ԫ , ѽ ѡ Ѫ ѡ ᡿ Ѽѡ ỿ᡿, Ѭԫ Կ Ҽѡԫ ὿ һ ԫ ԬԿѼ Ѭԡ տ. ԼԿ, ԫ ´ ӫի Ѽ һԿ ӿὫ տ ӡ ӫѡ, ԫ ի񿽿 . ´ , Կټ ߬һҽѺټ ߫ѽѼ , ԫ ѽ ѡ Ӭ󡫮 ԫӿ Ѯ ӿ, ߫񿡴 ޿ӫ ԫѮ Ӭ󡫮 ҿѮ, ӫԽ տ󡫮 - ѫᮡ , ӫ ԫ Ӭ ի ѡ - ѽټ ԿԿԿ ӫ ߬, ԫ ѽټ ӫ. ٽ ߬ӫټ ѽѬ, ԫ Կ, ߿ Ѽ Ѽ . ԫ Կ ߻᡿ ѡ. 񡿼 ٽ Ѭ Ҽѡԫ ߽ . ٮ , ´ ߫ ᡫ, , ӫ, Ѭ ᡿ߴ ߫᡿Ѽ Ӭ Ҽѡԫ. ᬵ "߻᡿ ӿ ƿի" Կߴ ѽѼ 1945 . ӫ߿ "Ԭ" ԫӿ-߽ѽ ӫ󿽿 ´ , ߼Ӵ Ӽ ߻ѵ ẫ᡿. Կ ӻҽ ѫѡ (), ẫᡡټ, ѺӴټ Ҽ᡿ӿѼ. ѡ տѻ߬ ߫ 󫿼 ټ ᬫ ӫѼ "Ԭ ߻ " Ӭ-ԫӿ߬ ѼԿ. ѫѡٮ ߴ ӫ߫: Ѽ ԫӿ ӫ߬ ߬ ݻի ӿ Ҽѡԫ, ߬ ԿԿ߬ ѡ, 󡿬 ݻԫӿ ߫Ѽѡ . . ԫ ߫ ԫ, ߿ѼԿӫ ᡿ ޿ Ѽѡ? ´ ޽ ԿԿ߬ ᡿ ѽ-. ԫ 1990- 󫺼 ᵿ ԫѡ Կ ҬѮ ´ . ԫ Ѽ ߽ѽ ԫӿ ߬ ߽󡫮 Ӭ XX Ѭ Ҫ Կ Ѻ Ҽѡ "Ǭ Ѯ ӿ ƿի", 󽴯 Ӭ Ҽѡԫ XX Ѭ. Ἣ ´ ߻ѽ ᬫ ӫү - ߫ ҡѡү ߡ ߽Ӵ տ ѡԿӫᡡ ѻտ ߻߬ տ ߬ ߽󡫮 Ӭ 1970 .
߫ ѻԫ ´ ԡ߿ߴ ἴԿ Ѯ ӿ ƿի, ԫԿ ԫӫ ߫ߴ. ġ ӫ , Ҽ޽ѡ Ὣ ѡ ѡ߬ ߽Ҫѡ ԫ ӿ Ѯ޿ ӿ ԫӿ Ӭ . ߫ ӡ ߻᡿ ԫ ӿ ƿի, ԫӫ ´ Ѽߴ ߫ 󫺼 ѡ Կѽ ƿի Ѽ 󿡫 ӿ . 諼ѡӿ 񫻫ѡ Կ ߻᡿ 󽴯 ߫ ߫ Ѯ, ỿᡡ ߫ ӫ, ԫ Ἷ ߴ ޿ӡ ԫԿѮ ԫӿ ߬ ߽󡫮 Ӭ.
ūԿ ߴ ´ ٽ իټ ١ ѽ ԫ, ߻񡿬 󿪡, Կѽ ߿ (ӫ), ѻ߬ ӫ߬. 滫󿪡 Կѽ ƿի, ӿ ߬߬, ѽ Ѯ ݻտ ѽ ѡ, ߻޿ ҡѡ ᡿ Һ ԯѼ Ѯ, ߫ѽ ߽Ҫ Ѽ ټ Ѽ ɫ߿߬ ӫ߿޿, ѻ߬ ߿ (1887 - 1962) ٽ ի󡿬, 󡿬 ޿ .. . ѡ ߬ ެ, , , ߴ Կѽ ߿, ´ ӿѺ ҽӡ, 󻽫 Ἣ ѽ ӵ-ѻ߬. ´ ѽ Ӽ ẫ᡿, ٽ ߫ẫᡡټ ѽѬ ޿ӡټ ߬ ẫ ԫ Կ߬ ߫. ᡿ ٽ ݡ. ġ ի ӫү , ټ ԫἿ ٽ ӿ, ެ ԫ߬, 俬ѡ. " Ҽ", "󿺫", " ޿" "ỿ߬ ѽ" Կӫ ἴ. ѫᡡ, ߽, ߻ Կտ Ư, ռԫ : 翡 ⿻. ġ ٽ ԫ ѡѽѼ ߿߬ Һ٬ իѡ, ɫ߿ 䫡Կ, ߿߬ ߬ ӫ. Һ٬ ᮬ߬, ԫӫ ߻ӿ "Կ" ߿, ӫ Լ Ѭѡ ӡ ߡ. ѡ ߫ . . ӫ, ߫ѡԿ, ԫӫ . իѡ߬ "ƫӪѡ ", ߿ ٽ Ѯ޿ ӫѡ .. . ߫ ѡ ԫү ߿ իѡ, 񫫵ѡѡ,  "Ave verum corpus", Һ٬ ԫӫ ի ߫ѡ "߽" ᡿. ѮѮ ٽ Ѫ ǡ ի, ߬ ԫӫ Լ ᬫ, ԫ ӫ޽ ӿԿ ѽѮ. ġ իӫޫ ߬ ѽ Կԫ ѡ Ὣ ӫ, ߫ѡԿ, Ἣ ᡿߽߬, ߬, ᡫ, ޿. ԫ 󫿼 ѡѼ ߻Ѭᬽ "" . , ߬ ӿѺ ѡٮ ѡ߬ . Լ ´ Ѽ ӫԿ߬ ӫѡ. ᡿ ߬ ߬ ߿, ᬪ ߿߬ 󫻿߿ ᴡ ԿԿ 󻽫 ٽ ԫ ߡѽ ߫ѡ, ԫ 󿽿 Ѽ ԡ ڿߴ 񫪡 ߬ Ѽѡ. ߽ ҺѮ . . ٽ ѡٮ 񫪡, ߿ ѡ 󫻿߿ Ѭ ѽ 伿ӿ ӿ. 񫪡 .. ѽ ү ߫ү ѻᵿ ߻ѵ὿ԫ ӫ޽ѡ , ١Ҫѡ ٽ ѡ ᬫ ߴ ߼. Ӵ , իӫޫ ԡ ޿ ޿ ߫ѡ. ߿ ߫᡿ ߴ, ߼Ӵ ү ߼ѡ Ѭ ߬ Կ, ӫ ޫ "". ԫ ´ . Ѽѡ ԫ὿ Ԭ ޫ "滫". ѡԫ ӿ "ߡٮ ĬԴ" ´ ٽ 񡿼 "ᮡӫ" ӫҬ. , ԫӫ ٿ 󫮡 "߬" , ԫ ѡ ԿԬ "߬ Ἳ߬", ԫ Ѫ ߫߬ү ݻ ߬ ӡӫᡡ ޽ ޿ Ѯ. ūԫ ߽ ߬, Ѽ һ߬ ӫ ɫ߿, .. ԫ ߫ѡ ѽ ᡵҺ߬ ٬, ԫ Ѽ ὿ ҽᵿ ߫񡿬 񿻽Կ߬ Ѫѡ. ԫ ѽ. ū ѡ߬ .. ٽ ӫ ӫ - , ׽ ᡫ, ٽ ի Ѯӿ.  ѻ ´ ѽ 󫿼 ѡ, ټ ټ ѡ, ӫ տ ߬ ߽. ѡἿ ѽ ѻѡ 񫽪 ԫӫ ߡ᡿ ߽ ԫ-ƿի߬ ߽߬ Կ (١ - Ҽ᡿ӡ ҡ߿). ѡ ߬ , Ἣ ´ , ߬ӫү, ѡү Կ աѮ ߽ ὿ ԫ ѡ 񿼿 ӫ ǽѬ ѽ, ߫񡿬 ҺѴ -߬ ߬ ѡ ǡѴ ǽѬ ٬ ߬ ߬ѽѮ ᡿ Ӭ. ޡټ ի ެ ѻԫӿ "-߬" Կ Һ὿ ѿԡ ߫Կ Ӭ󡫮 ԫӿ Ӭ 1920- 1940 .  Ѯүڿ Կ ߫Կ ὿ .. ү, ạү ԫү ӿԿ. ᡿, ӿѡ ѽ ԫӿ, ߿ ߫ٮ ѡ ԫӡԿ, ὿ ߬ѽ Ӭ Ӽ, ᬫ ԿԿ, ԫ ٽ ѡ ӫ޽ ԫ Ѽ ӿѴ ԫӿ߬ Ҭ, ᬿ, ߿ ߿ 软߬. -ԫ Ἷ Ҫ ὿ 󡿬Ἷ . ԫ - ӫ߫-ӫԫѮ, Ѭԫ ߽ ԫ-ƿի߬ Ҽ᡿ӡ ҡ߿ 񿼿 ӫ, ԫѽ Կѽ 쿬 Һѵ. ԫ - үڿ ѽѡѼ Ӭ ߬ , ԫѽ ߬ѡ ӿԫ ӫԫѮ ǽѬ ٬. ԫ үڿ ӫ ѮѮ ԫӿ ߬ Ӭ ѡ ǽѬ ѽ. , ԫ ߽ ߽ ѡ ... ߻ ߡټ ẫ ԼԿ ´ : ߬ӫԿ ߬ߴ ѡ ԫ ừԫ ѽ ᡡ ߽, 26 ѡԴӴ (9 ԴӴ) 1971 . Ѻ 18 ԫ ѡ ߫ԫ ӫ߽ѡ Ѯ ӿ ƿի, ἴԿ ԫӫ ߫ ѻԫ ´ ԡ߿ߴ ߯ . Ի᡿ ӫԫӡ Ѻ Ӵ ӫի񿽫 ӿ ӫԡ ѡ Ѯ Ἣ ạ . Ի὿ ´ տѻ߬ ſԿӿ (), ѽ ѽ߬ ѽ ߬߬ ӿտ, ӫԫѮ ǽѬ߿ (ѽ), ҺѮ ѽ Ҫѡ. ἴԿ , ԫ ѽ ԫ ѽѬ ߴ , Խٮ ´ ߫᡿ߴ . ԫ ӿ ߻ Ѭԫ ӫԫѴ 񿼿 ӫ ߻᡿ ѡ .. .